But even then, there occur many loopholes through which people play their own gaming!
Sports betting odds can be defined as “the likelihood of an outcome occurring that is stated in a number form”. The main basis of the wager is the straight up outcome, which is not in to a point spread. In college, also sports betting odds have taken reign even though it might be considered illegal by many. In such sports like boxing, the only thing that counts is who wins and who loses, and in such cases, the money line wagering enters in!
In sports betting line, money line is like point spread that is used to equal the attractiveness of the favorite and the underdog for the person betting. In sports betting odds, the odds are termed as “MONEYLINE”.The sports betting odds there are no point spread for many of the sports such as boxing, tennis etc as there occur no way to measure the points or score in which the player wins or loses by. The bookies set a lot of numbers by keeping the public in mind and the person who begins to study can understand easily as to how the person can gain more and on the numbers set by the bookies.
In sports betting odds, the odds are made not by the common people. Apart from this, he also works as a consultant on gaming management, strategies, personnel and marketing. It is an entirely different case in sports betting odds, as about 75% of odds are established for the licensed Sports Books in Nevada as well as for Oregon State Lottery by Las Vegas Sports Consultant Inc, which is run by Michael ‘Roxy” Roxborough. In sports betting odds, there are many things, which are illegal such as transmitting information on gambling across the state for placing, or taking bets is considered illegal. The sports betting odds makers set the money line, as more money must be risked for the favorite or the person expected to win and very less on the underdog or the person more likely to lose, so that there occurs a balance between both sides of the contest.
. Money line in sports betting odds is decided by the event winner with no regard to the point spread as there is occurs no point spread. In sports betting odds, such as football odds is becoming more vibrant each year. And most of the illegal books of Nevada draw their odds from casinos. This field is considered as a way to make huge profits if the person is a smart bettor who has practiced proper money management
If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.
While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).
There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents.
If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource..
This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.
I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe
Video captured the men grabbing onto anything they could – even gold stanchions used to form the lines – and whipping them around like mini battering rams. One witness told CNN affiliate WCBS the scene was ‘chaotic’ and compared it to a World Wrestling Entertainment event.”
A casino brawl in NYC? Casino opponents generally have a number of grievances, but a brawl busting out in the middle of the gambling floor’s food court is usually not one of them. Friday night as they waited in long lines to get into the New Orleans-style restaurant, which was offering drink specials for their grand opening.
In light of the casino brawl, additional security is being added.. We are reviewing all aspects of this unfortunate event and are fully committed to taking steps to ensure similar acts do not take place ever again.”
Identified in the police affidavit were Andre Rivers, 23, of Brooklyn, and Jovan Bovell, 23, of South Ozone Park. Both men were charged with disorderly conduct and resisting arrest. A third, unnamed man was arrested as well.
The chair-hurling brawl involved approximately two dozen individuals who started fighting around 10:00 p.m. No one was seriously hurt; four casino security guards suffered bumps and bruises while trying to disperse the ruckus.
Adds the NY Daily News: “The dining area at the Vegas-style gambling hall was left in tatters from the ruckus, which went on for several minutes as melees and score-settling erupted in pockets throughout the food court.”
Writes CNN: “The fight took place in the food court area of Resorts World Casino where approximately 300 people were still at the scene when police arrived, according to the New York Police Department. All bets were off during the opening night of a Fat Tuesday daiquiri bar and restaurant, located within the Resorts World Casino in Queens. The evening was marred by hooligans throwing punches – along with tables, chairs and anything else the men could get their hands on.
“It looks like 15 to 20 people were actually fighting amongst 300 to 400 patrons who were terrified and trying to get out of the way,” a Queens police officer said, adding that “a lot of gang members were involved.”
A casino spokesman said, “The safety of our patrons is Resorts World’s top priority, and there is absolutely no room for this kind of behavior at our facility. In the end, three were arrested and thousands of dollars in damage was done
Louis has been playing well this year though. Jordan Spieth – 7 to 1
Dustin Johnson tied for 28th last week at Sawgrass. He tied for 28th place last week.
T-6. He also won the Tshwane Open in February for his 9th European Tour win. Dustin Johnson has nine PGA Tour wins with his last win coming at the 2015 WGC-Cadillac 14 months ago.
Bryson DeChambeau tied for 4th at the 2016 RBC Heritage in his first pro start but has missed the cut in his two tournaments since. Koepka can hit the ball as far as anybody on tour so he’s always a threat. Gary Woodland is 31 years old and he has two PGA Tour wins with his last win in 2013. Ryan Palmer tied for 4th at the Texas Open and tied for 23rd last week so he’s playing well. Vijay is 53 years old.
T-10. He finished second in the WGC Match Play in March and won the Perth International on the European Tour in February. Jimmy Walker, Jason Dufner, Ryan Palmer – 40 to 1 odds each
Vijay Singh won this tournament in 2003. Will he win? Your call.
T-15. The problem with Charl Schwartzel this week is he has not played since he missed the cut at the Masters.
Zach Johnson has not played great since he won the 2015 British Open. Jordan Spieth is playing this week trying to win this tournament for the first time. Louis Oosthiuzen – 25 to 1
Ernie Els won the Byron Nelson back in 1995. He has 8 PGA wins and 11 more European Tour wins. Brendon Todd is 30 years old.
3. He tied for 35th last week at the Players. Brooks Koepka – 28 to 1
Steven Bowditch – 250 to 1 odds. Expect him to play better this week also. Sam Snead is second with three wins (1945, 1957, 1958) followed by Jack Nicklaus (1970, 1971) and Bruce Lietzke (1981, 1988) with two wins each.
Marc Leishman is a great golfer but not a great winner. Jordan Spieth missed the cut by a stoke last week at the Players which was his first tournament since the Masters. Brandt Snedeker has 8 wins in 256 starts including winning the 2016 Farmers Open on February 1st. Sergio’s last win anywhere was at the 2015 Ho Tram Open on the Asian Tour on December 6, 2015.
T-6. Then some notable players are also listed with much higher odds who have won this tournament in the past.
4. For his career, Ernie Els has over 40 wins on the European and PGA Tours combined but his last win was 2013. He should play better this week but 25 to 1 odds are probably not enough for a bet on him to win.
Keegan Bradley – 66 to 1 odds
Brooks Koepka is interesting this week. That was the first of his three PGA Tour wins including the 2011 PGA Championship major. Dustin Johnson – 9 to 1
T-6. Tom Watson (1975, 1978-80) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with four. He missed the cut last week at the Players. Bryson DeChambeau, Danny Lee, Gary Woodland – 50 to 1 odds each
5. Bradley, the nephew of LPGA great Pat Bradley, has not won on tour since 2012. He was likely rusty last week and should play much better this week. He tied for 64th place last week at the Players. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson.
Brendon Todd won the Byron Nelson in 2014 for his only PGA Tour win to date. Sergio had not played since the Masters. Last year he finished tied for 30th in the Byron Nelson.
Charley Hoffman won the Texas Open a month ago for his 4th PGA Tour win. Jason Dufner won for the 4th time in his career in January but has not really played well enough to win since. Danny Lee is 25 and he won for the first time on tour last year at the Greenbrier. He missed the cut at the Players last week and he should play better this week but he only has the four wins in 295 career starts which makes him a tough bet for the win.
Steven Bowditch is the defending champion in the AT&T Byron Nelson but he’s been playing terrible lately missing the cut in his last five starts. Sergio Garcia – 20 to 1
The Byron Nelson has been played annually since 1944. Ernie is 46 years old.
Keegan Bradley won the Byron Nelson in 2011. Charley Hoffman – 22 to 1
Sergio Garcia was likely rusty at the Players where he tied for 54th place. He has one PGA Tour win and one European Tour win so far in his career.
9. Snedeker missed the cut last week.
Good luck this week to all the PGA golfers and especially to all the bettors at the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson!
1. Charl Schwartzel – 25 to 1
Ernie Els – 150 to 1 odds
Brendon Todd – 200 to 1 odds
Charl Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March for his 2nd PGA Tour win. Woodland has missed only one cut this season in 13 tournaments but has yet to crack the top 10 in any start.
2. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was over two years ago.
Listed below with comments are all the PGA players this week with odds of 50 to 1 or less to win the 2016 Byron Nelson. Zach Johnson – 25 to 1
T-12. That was his first start since the Masters and he was likely rusty too. He finished tied for 35th last week.
Tiger Woods (1997) and Jason Day (2010) have won this tournament once each. He has three wins on tour but his last win was in 2010.
Louis Oosthuizen’s only PGA Tour win remains the 2010 British Open. The 26 year old has three top 10 finishes in 2016. He was 5th at the Arnold Palmer a few months ago but he finished tied for 54th place last week.
The 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 19-22, 2016, at the TPC Four Seasons Resort located in Dallas, Texas. He tied for 35th last week. Vijay has 34 career wins on the PGA Tour but his last win was in 2008. He has one career win, which came in 2012, in 187 starts. Matt Kuchar – 18 to 1
Matt Kuchar played well last week tying for 3rd place but he is tough bet here at only 18 to 1 odds. Brandt Snedeker, Marc Leishman – 33 to 1 odds each
Jimmy Walker missed the cut in his last two starts including last week. Bowditch has two wins on tour and they came one each over the last two years and both were in Texas and it’s not impossible he could turn it around this week but he’s still a tough bet.
At odds of 7 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson
This morning I was researching the net looking for an alluring roulette wheel idea I discovered a software application identified as Roulette Sniper. Depending on which casinos you play at, this may influence the number of betting breaks you get but will boost the number of chips you acquire, so it is best to choose an online casino so you can deactivate the moving graphics.. I couldn’t trust how closely, the trial version was predicting when I should bet. In the first 10 minutes I raked in more cash to really purchase for the Roulette Sniper full version.
Roulette Sniper turns the casinos upside down and shakes their pockets empty.
One vital tip that I do propose with this kick a$$ software is to check off conservative settings, but raise the high/low numbers by roughly five digits. Get the software that will make you filthy rich!
Secret to Winning at Roulette Betting Strategy System.
Before you apply certain ideas with the roulette wheel, you should educate yourself on how to improve your odds of winning exponentially – and everyone should rake it in.
Remember to maintain smart money management strategies while playing at the online casinos and you will win and walk away glamorously.
Now I have been using Roulette Sniper over the previous 2 weeks and I know it’s one of the greatest worthy tools in the universe for beating the roulette table. I installed the 60 minute free trial software that the Roulette Sniper website offers me and tried it out. I am not going to show you the chips that I rake in playing with Roulette Sniper, but I will explain to you that it works.
If you’re like me, you could be most likely reading this article because you appreciate roulette
Visitors that tire of the casinos can spend a day in the sunshine, rent a jet ski, or go for a peaceful bike ride along the beach.
In 2005 the entire face of the Gulf Coast was irreversibly marked by the devastation of Hurricane Katrina. At the time, Mississippi state law prohibited land-based gaming and the casinos were housed on floating barges. Biloxi, like its neighbor, Gulfport, is a mix of southern sunshine and Caribbean attitude.
The Beau Rivage and Hard Rock sit directly next to each other and comprise the center of gambling action in Biloxi. Kessler is home to one of the Air Force’s larger medical units as well as its large fleet of planes, known as “hurricane hunters,” that are used to monitor meteorological conditions.
Located an hour east of New Orleans and an hour west of Mobile is the gambling town of Biloxi, Mississippi. The Grand, Isle, and Palace are all located at the eastern end of Biloxi.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino – Located in the heart of town, the Hard Rock boasts a touch of Hollywood glamour and hosts some of the best entertainment acts in town.
Many casinos in Biloxi were severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. Surprisingly, its home state of Mississippi seems to have less cultural influence upon Biloxi than these neighborings. In October of 2005, Mississippi revised the laws to allow onshore gambling,facilitate reconstruction, and save an industry vital to its economy.
Palace Casino Resort – Seated on the Back Bay of Biloxi, the Palace is a stylish gambling venue, and the only non-smoking casino on the Gulf Coast.
Although the casinos of Biloxi and Gulfport do not, for the most part, neighbor one another, most of them are situated directly upon Route 90. The high winds and water surges of Katrina pushed many of them hundreds of feet inland and smash several to pieces. The influences of both Louisiana and Alabama are felt throughout this sleepy beach community, parked on the sand of the Gulf of Mexico. Only the IP and Boomtown are a short distance from Beach Boulevard.
Grand Casino – The Biloxi member of the Caesars Entertainment empire, the Grand is the gaming mega-giant’s spacious and versatile property with a beach front location.. Island View is the only casino in Gulfport, a short, 15 minute drive from Biloxi. They are the only two casinos which people regularly walk between. It is a resilient community, married to the water, where the trees, once broken by Katrina, have been carved into beautiful dolphins and birds.
Island View Casino Resort – The only casino located in Gulfport, Island View seems to thrive on the more affluent surroundings and short drive from Biloxi.
Treasure Bay Casino and Hotel – The smallest casino in Biloxi, Treasure Bay is able to offer friendly staff and some of the most reasonable rates in town.
IP Casino Resort & Spa – A short drive off Beach Boulevard, the monolithic tower of IP soars over its neighbors and gives guests all the luxury of a high-end resort.
One cannot visit Biloxi and Gulfport without being aware of the proximity of Louisiana and Alabama. Along with great southern barbeque, one finds an abundance of shrimp, crawfish, and crab in the local cuisine. The pace of life is easy going and relaxed, as if on permanent vacation. The residents of the area are a complete mix of people drawn from the entire length of The United States’ Gulf of Mexico shoreline, from Texas to Florida.
Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant -The Jimmy Buffett empire throws its hat into the Biloxi casino market.
Isle Casino Hotel – On the western edge of town, Isle sits directly upon the beach and gives visitors great access to both the Gulf and Back Bay.
Beau Rivage Resort & Casino – French for “beautiful shore,” famed Las Vegas developer Steve Wynn has made the Beau Rivage into Biloxi’s premier, award-winning casino.
Biloxi and Gulfport are very much beach communities. Although New Orleans received most of the media attention during the storm’s aftermath, Biloxi and Gulfport still bear the devastating scars prominently. There are countless abandoned buildings, driveways that lead to nothing, and empty concrete slabs where buildings once sat.
Kessler Air Force Base is located in Biloxi and adds a military presence of both active and retired personnel.
Boomtown Casino – Themed after a 19th century mining and ranching settlement, Boomtown prides itself on being the “local’s casino” of Biloxi.
On a ten mile stretch of Route 90, the main thoroughfare through Biloxi and Gulfport, aptly named Beach Boulevard, sit nine large casino and hotel resorts (select casino name for individual review):
Seated upon the sands of Biloxi and looking out upon the horizon that stretches over the Gulf of Mexico, it is not hard to imagine why Jefferson Davis chose this location for his retirement. The city operates on island rhythms, strummed by Jimmy Buffett, and gives visitors a nice place to escape for a little while. The most popular sports team is the New Orleans Saints; the LSU Tigers and Alabama Crimson Tide seem better represented than either of Mississippi’s SEC members
It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.
Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.
Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.
Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.
Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.
How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.
For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60’s and 70’s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.
For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.
Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.
Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.
Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.
The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.
Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. My study suggests that’s not the case.
. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.
Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.
First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.
In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.
Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!
None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. None of them work.
In that spirit. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.
In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.
However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating
If there is support from Georgia’s chief executive this time, then the plan could meet with a different fate.
The plan with the most potential income for Georgia included one casino in the Atlanta area, one casino in the Savannah area, and one in the Jekyll Island area. Talk has previously been put forth about casinos in Atlanta, but was quickly sloughed off. Clayton County has a projected GGR of $741.8 M, while the South Cobb and Lake Lanier option had the lowest projected GGR.
The six Atlanta locations were determined to be in downtown Atlanta, Cobb County by the Galleria, DeKalb County near the intersection of I-20 and I-285, South Cobb County near Six Flags, Clayton County near the airport, and the Lake Lanier area in Gwinnett County..
The study also drew upon evaluations of other states’ programs, such as Indiana, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, as well as looking abroad to Singapore’s gaming control board. The sites were evaluated based on proximity to other tourist attractions, as the new casino in the Atlanta area would seek to enhance the city’s tourism aspects.
The two locations with the highest potential gross gaming revenue (GGR) were the downtown location ($791.5 M) and the Galleria locations ($788.2 M). The DeKalb option was analyzed to have a potential GGR of $770.2 M. Considering how long it took to move a Sunday alcohol sales bill forward, such a fast-track may not be possible. Such locations would generate revenue for the state based on the upfront auction of casino applications and on annual licenses and tax receipts. (Be warned, it is a large download and may take some time.) The report indicates that the potential revenue that could be realized for the state of Georgia could approach one billion dollars – no small sum for a state that has spent the last several years trying to close budget gaps of similar size.
The report analyzed the possibility of a casino at several different locations in Atlanta and at Savannah and/or Jekyll Island. The report encompasses a bidding process, regulation, revenue streams, types of games and machines, and locations for such a move.
Jim Galloway of the AJC filed a request for the report, which he has graciously shared. It suggested a strong regulatory framework, supplied by the Georgia Lottery Corporation, to ensure honest gaming and prevention of potential corruption.
Spectrum Gaming Group has put together an 84-page report for the GLC, delivered for the Governor to review last week. The upfront application fee, though, could not be too large, or it would hamper the new site’s ability to generate revenue going forward.
The Georgia Lottery Commission has received a study to review the potential and feasibility for establishing casinos in Georgia.
The report projects that the earliest the state could start seeing revenue from the passage of a gaming bill was 2014
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He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
Less Than Zero
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Dr. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
This makes little sense.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . . It was so unusual at the time . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
The Road to Zero
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Mr. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
AIDS now had a face.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . Louis.
But, it doesn’t end there.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Gateway to the West
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
From a front-line perspective
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. 1952-1953).
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St